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    The term Return To Player or RTP is used to describe the game's theoretical payout percentage, or how much of the money you bet will be paid back over time. For example, if a particular game has an RTP of 95%, it means that players can expect to receive back €95 in winnings for every €100 they ...
    In roulette, there are many different types of bets. Players can bet on a single number or on a number of different groups of numbers.Roulette bets are divided into three categories:
    Inside betsOutside betsAnnounced bets
    Inside and outside bets are all the standard bets that all players sh ...
    "En Prison" ruleThis is a more complicated variant of the "La Partage" rule. Here, instead of half of the bet being returned to the player, each bet remains on the table after the ball has landed on 0. The dealer places a marker, which signals that the bet is "in jail". ...
    Apart from the basic rules, there are some special roulette rules that change the way roulette is played. The most commonly used and known rules are the following:
    "La Partage" (Sharing)"En Prison""Surrender''
    These special roulette rules are beneficial f ...
    Roulette is one of the most popular casino games. It is a game known to most people and also relatively simple.Most probably you can sit down and play at a roulette table without even reading about the game. However, proper preparation should not be neglected. If you want to play roulette (whether i ...
    Using a random number in "an easy to exploit" way
    Let’s now assume that there was a 64-bit RNG state in use. How do you use a 64-bit number to deterministically stop 5 reels by 50 symbols each? The easiest approach which preserves uniformity would be the following:Pos1 = RND modulo 50 ...
    Too short (32 bit) RNG (Random Number Generator)
    Aristocrat MK IV cabinets were developed on a 32-bit ARM 250 processor. If the slot developers decided to also use a 32-bit random number seed, then there are just 4,294,967,296 possible RNG states. It may look like a lot, but current computers a ...
    Finding the current RNG value
    The LCG PRNG (Linear Congruential Generator Pseudo Random Number Generator) algorithm is generally characterized as easily predictable. This means that just by knowing 3 random numbers you are able to calculate a, c, m parameters and easily predict the next numbers ...
    Now let’s speculate on how bold Alex could have exploited this algorithm.Decompilation
    The first step is to get to know the exact parameters of the algorithm (parameters a, c and m). This is the easy part, as these parameters are written in every slot machine. Alex just had to read the binary c ...
    Let's start by summarising everything we know about his strategy:
    Alex required results from about 24 spins in order to predict future outcomes.Agents would wait for the right moment to press the spin button.Brendan Koerner was able to trace the origins of the PRNG algorithm - pseudo rando ...